The focal aim of essentialism was to develop "model citizens" through the imparting of traditional moral mores and basic knowledge. Similar to perennialism, it emphasizes character development, but without the total reliance on the classic works of yesteryears. It is a concept based on "going back to basics" of learning, emphasizing the natural sciences. It is purely academic in nature; the natural sciences are predominant, while vocational or living skills are secondary.The learning approach in essentialism is quite similar to perennialism in that both are teacher-centred. The teacher is the focal point in the imparting of knowledge, with the learners being the "receivers". Exams are crucial in essentialist education, with progress measured by test scores. The knowledge gained is aimed at equipping students with a working knowledge with which they are expected to apply in the outside world.