To reflect means “to think.” “To reflect about your actions” as a teacher means that you think and plan carefully about the way that you want to do things, and how these things should be done. Reflective teaching can therefore be seen as a blend of teaching as an art and teaching as a science. Reflective teachers think carefully about the educational goals they want to achieve, and whether or not such goals are actually worth achieving. They think carefully about the nature and effectiveness of the instructional methods and techniques they want to use to reach those goals, and they question the underlying assumptions, for example the means-end relationship, behind the choice of learning materials. They also reflect about the extent to which scientific evidence supports their choices.A good example of a means-end relationship can be found in learning a second or third language. From a learning point of view, the end goal will determine the shortest, most effective means (way) of achieving it. If the end goal is every day spoken communication for the purposes of tourism, then a good means to the end may be to attend a short language course or living with a family in the country where the language is spoken. The picture changes dramatically if the end goal is to earn an advanced degree in a language. Here the focus is on academic purposes. This requires a high level of proficiency in the written and spoken forms of the language, and a detailed understanding of its grammar and literature. Achieving these will require a completely different means.