The ME and CE paradigms would seem to align with the philosophical and oratorical traditions of liberal education, respectively. Moreover the two traditions pick up pedagogical preferences for direct (oratorical) and indirect (philosophical) methods. Dewey (1908) defined the debate in this way. It “may be laid down as fundamental,” he asserted, “that the influence of direct moral instruction, even at its very best, is comparatively slight in influence” (p. 4). Dewey was critical of traditional pedagogies of exhortation, didactic instruction and drill, practices that reduces moral instruction to teaching about virtues or instilling certain attitudes in students. Instead what is required is an approach to moral education that links school subjects to a social interest; that cultivates children’s ability to discern, observe, comprehend social situations; that uses methods that appeal to the “active constructive powers” of intelligence; that organizes schools along the lines of a genuine community. This vision of Dewey’s is sometimes called a progressive or indirect approach because it eschews didactic instruction and direct transmission of moral content in favor of approaches that emphasize the child’s active construction of moral meaning through participation in democratic practices, cooperative groupings, social interaction and moral discussion.