EOL护理需要对如何处理死亡过程进行重复的教学，并将他们的注意力从生命的数量转移到生命的质量上。护士应处理社会心理方面的问题，如焦虑和抑郁、愤怒、无望和无力感、恐惧和沟通。大多数绝症患者和他们的家人都有预期的悲伤，这可能会使他们的生活瘫痪。一些护士可以减轻照顾者倦怠的方式是通过提供实际支持和暂息护理,提高防范通过干预措施,促进沟通的家庭关于死亡,并确保预后信息是适应家庭的需要(尼尔森,Neergaard Jensen Vedsted,兄弟&古尔丁(2017)。使用非药物治疗，如放松呼吸、音乐和想象可能有助于缓解焦虑和抑郁症状。如果病人处于愤怒或否认阶段，帮助他们表达他们的感受并承认变化。让他们觉得自己很重要，让他们参与决策和护理计划，让他们在对自尊重要的时候有一些控制权。绝症患者害怕很多事情，如疼痛、孤独、呼吸急促等，这些都可以通过药物、治疗触摸、陪伴、尊重和接受他们的生活价值观和积极的品质而不被评判(Lewis et al.， 2017)。护士还应注重EOL的物理护理，包括处理疼痛、谵妄、吞咽困难、虚弱和疲劳、脱水、呼吸困难、肌阵挛、皮肤破裂、肠道模式、尿失禁、厌食症、恶心和呕吐、念珠菌病。一些物理保健护理管理——管理止痛药在及时,提供安静、明亮的房间,调整患者的人,地点和时间,提供修改后的饮食和吸在必要的时候,集群保健与频繁的休息时间,提供口腔护理和水化治疗如果容忍,让床头升高和经常检查呼吸状态,提供皮肤护理,避免剪切力,评估粪便压紧和泌尿功能,使用吸附剂垫防止皮肤破损，提供患者喜欢的食物，小份和频繁间隔，清洁假牙，促进口腔卫生(Lewis et al.， 2017)。同样重要的是要有文化能力，尊重病人的宗教价值观，并在可能的情况下提供精神上的帮助。
EOL care requires repetitive teaching on ways to cope with dying process and shift their focus from quantity of life to quality of life. Nurse should address psychosocial aspect like feelings of anxiety and depression, anger, hopelessness and powerlessness, fear and communication. Most patients with terminal illness and their family have anticipatory grief that may disable their lives. Some of the ways a nurse can alleviate caregiver burnout is by providing practical support and respite care, increasing the preparedness through interventions, facilitating communication in the family about dying, and ensuring that prognostic information is adapted to the needs of the family (Nielsen, Neergaard, Jensen, Vedsted, Bro & Guldin (2017). Using non-pharmacological management like relaxation breathing, music and imagery may help alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression. If a patient is in the anger or denial stage, help them with expression of their feelings and acknowledging the change. Making them feel important by involving them in decision making and plan of care gives them some control when is important for their self-esteem. Terminally ill patients are afraid of so many things like pain, being alone, shortness of breath which can be managed by medication, therapeutic touch, providing company, respecting and accepting their life values and positive qualities without being judgmental (Lewis et al., 2017). Nurses should also focus on physical care towards EOL which includes managing pain, delirium, dysphagia, weakness and fatigue, dehydration, dyspnea, myoclonus, skin breakdown, bowel patterns, urinary incontinence, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, candidiasis. Some of the nursing management for physical care are – administering pain meds in timely manner, providing quiet, well-lit room and reorienting patient to person, place and time, providing modified diet and suctioning when necessary, cluster care with frequent rest periods, provide oral care and hydration therapy if tolerated, keep head of the bed elevated and check respiratory status frequently, provide skin care and avoid shearing forces, assess for fecal impaction and urinary function, prevent skin breakdown by using absorbent pads, provide patient’s favorite foods in small portions and frequent intervals, clean dentures and promote oral hygiene (Lewis et al., 2017). It is equally important to be culturally competent and respect patient’s religious values and provide spiritual assistance when possible.