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澳洲维多利亚代写作业:正义战争理论

Keywords:澳洲维多利亚代写作业:正义战争理论

功利主义伦理学与正义战争理论一样,都是通过对结果的评价来主张道德的正确性。其他伦理学家,最初是康德,认为“善意”是道德确定性的真正实质。这种信念促使康德提出了一种由“准则”组成的伦理体系,称为“责任”。在这种体系中,谎言,即使是在善意结果的暗示下,也是不道德的。将康德的伦理应用于战争比这更有问题,但与预测结果相比,它要一维得多。康德认为,只有当我们自己的生命受到威胁时,才应遵循授权暴力行为的准则,“保护自己的生命是一种责任”。如果那时100%证明伊拉克存在大规模毁灭性武器,那么康德的战争格言就得到了满足。但目前看来,情况并非如此。因此,伦理思想家可以大致分为两个部分。首先,我们想到那些由于动机而认为一种行为是道德的还是不道德的人。第二个阵营是那些决定一种行为是否道德的人,他们考虑的是这种行为所产生的后果。康德坚定地站在前一个阵营,这使他在伦理学上成为“义务论者”,而不是“结果主义者”。(义务论源于希腊语中的“义务”,“deon”和“logos”即科学。)康德认为我们服从于道德判断因为我们能够考虑并给出我们行为的理由,因此道德判断应该指向我们行动的理由。正如我们已经知道的,功利主义领域中一个非常重要的人物是约翰·斯图亚特·密尔,他的文章我们之前也提到过。约翰·斯图亚特·密尔于1806年出生于伦敦,是维多利亚时期最重要的哲学家和作家之一。他是一位政治活动家,一生都致力于社会改革。密尔的父亲詹姆斯·密尔也是一位著名的哲学家和历史学家。老密尔认为,为了得到适当的训练和教育,孩子的头脑就像一张白纸,必须接受严格的训练。因此,他把儿子和同龄的孩子隔离开,并把他安排在严格的时间表下。他确保到了三岁的时候,密尔已经学会了希腊语,到了八岁,他已经熟练地掌握了拉丁语。密尔的一天包括学术工作,他每天只有一个小时的空闲时间。到十四岁时,他已深入学习了历史、逻辑、数学和经济学。密尔从15岁开始研究边沁,边沁是英国原教旨主义理论家,更重要的是功利主义创始人。功利主义的前提引发了社会变革的终生追求。
澳洲维多利亚代写作业:正义战争理论
Along with the Just War Theory, utilitarian ethics both claim moral correctness through the evaluation of consequences. Other ethicists though, originally Kant, contend that “good intention” is the true substance of moral certainty. This belief led Kant to propose an ethical system comprised of “maxims” called “duty”] In this type of system a lie, even when committed under implications of good consequences, is always unethical. Applying Kantian ethics to war is more problematic than this, but in comparison to predicting outcomes it is far more one-dimensional. Kant, urges us to follow a maxim authorising violent action only when our own life is threatened, “To preserve one’s life is duty” . If then it was 100% proven that Weapons of Mass Destruction were present in Iraq, then the Kantian maxim for war is satisfied. At present though, it seems it is not. Ethical thinkers can therefore be roughly divided into two sections. First of all we think of those who deem whether an action is moral or immoral owing to the motive behind it. The second camp relates to those who decide whether or not an action is moral with regard to the consequences it manufactures. Kant is firmly in the former camp, making him a ‘deontologist’ rather than a ‘consequentialist’ when it comes to ethics. (Deontology stems from the Greek for duty, ‘deon’ and ‘logos’ i.e. science.) . Kant would argue that we are subject to moral judgment because we are able to consider and give reasons for our actions, and hence moral judgment should be directed at our reasons for acting.As has already been established, an extremely important figure in the field of utilitarianism is John Stuart Mill, whose essay we considered earlier. Born in 1806 in London, one of the most important philosophers and writers of the Victorian period, John Stuart Mill was a political activist, and was involved in efforts for social reform throughout his life. Mill’s father, James Mill, was also a famous philosopher and historian. In order to be properly trained and educated, Mill Senior believed that a child’s mind was like a ‘blank slate’ and must be subject to a strict regimen. Consequently, he isolated his son from children his own age and kept him under a rigorous schedule. He saw to it that by the age of three, Mill was learning Greek, and by the age of eight had become skilled in Latin. Mill’s day consisted of academic work, and he was granted only one hour of leisure each day. By the age of fourteen, he had studied profoundly in history, logic, mathematics, and economics. Mill began studying Jeremy Bentham at the age of fifteen, the fundamentalist English theorist and more importantly the founder of utilitarianism. The premise of utilitarianism initiated a lifelong quest for social reform.

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